Embodied Learning: knowing with the whole body


Embodied learning is the final theme I want to explore in relation to Iain McGilchrist’s book The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World. My interest is in how McGilchrist’s ideas might be significant for education.

The idea of embodied learning is not new. Philosophical discussion about the relationship between the mind and body has been ongoing from the time of The Buddha (480 – 400B.C.E.), and often centres around Descartes’ Cartesian dualism on the one hand, or the work of Merleau-Ponty on the problems of perception and embodiment on the other. In relation to philosophy all I want to say at this point is that, like many before me, I cannot align my educational philosophy with Descartes’ mind/body dualism. Merleau-Ponty’s (2004, p. 43) words (cited in Stolz, 2015), are nearer to my own thinking.

…rather than a mind and a body man is a mind with a body, a being who can only get to the truth of things because its body is, as it were, embedded in those things.

One of the earliest educators to recognise the importance of embodied learning was Maria Montessori, who wrote (as cited by Rathkunde, 2009b)

There is no description, no image in any book that is capable of replacing the sight of real trees . . . in a real forest. Something emanates from those trees which speaks to the soul, something no book, no museum is capable of giving (pp. 35-6).

Montessori encouraged a child-centred, holistic, place-based, experiential education, with a focus on hands-on activity. Teachers of infant children, children who cannot read or write, may never have thought of mind/body dualism, but they know intuitively that children learn with their whole bodies, They are daily surrounded, in their classrooms, by children playing in the sand tray, in the water, outdoors, dressing up, building with bricks and so on. In these activities, the children are learning without language. As we wrote in our paper ‘Synesthesia: From Cross-Modal to Modality-Free Learning and Knowledge (Williams et al., 2015)

What is most radical about the Montessori classroom is the lack of instruction or “linguistic scaffolding.” Instead the child is invited to explore the senses directly (p.50) (See also this previous post with comments on embodied learning).

Beyond the infant classroom, an understanding of the intimate connection between body and mind seems to get lost and education becomes increasingly disembodied.  Kevin Rathkunde (2009b) asks

‘How did we arrive at this alienating point of disembodiment in so many educational experiences?’

And further comments:

……. the disembodied view of the mind that is so ingrained in our technological society affects the daily practice of education. It lends itself to a fragmented view of learning where facts are taken out of context, and the personal experience and activity of the learner is seen as superfluous. It also lends itself to a production line view of schools that over-emphasize a business-like and efficient transfer of information and extrinsic rather than intrinsic student motivation. (Rathkunde, 2009a)

In a similar vein Stolz (2015, p.484) writes in the conclusion to his paper:

To some extent the former philosophical debates have either privileged the mind over the body (rationalism) or viewed the body as a type of sensorial instrument where knowledge is verified (empiricism). What is clear though is that neither viewpoint recognises the role of embodiment in how we come to understand and understand in a meaningful way.

The importance of the body in constituting reality is a theme that runs right through McGilchrist’s book, The Master and His Emissary. As Montessori knew, we see this clearly in how very young children acquire language in an embodied way, babbling and pointing at the same time, demonstrating the close connection between gesture and language. But embodied learning is not confined to young children. There is nothing that goes on in us that is not embodied. Most importantly, thinking and emotion are embodied. In 2015 on a course I attended I listened to McGilchrist discuss this:

“Our bodies are not assemblages of parts. There is a direct link between the heart and the brain via the vagal nerve. The heart feeds back to the brain, not just pain, as in the case of chest pain associated with heart conditions, but also in relation to other conditions such as epilepsy and depression. We talk about having a ‘heavy heart’. Depression is a condition of the heart as research has shown that after heart surgery there is an increase in the instance of depression. Thinking is thus embodied and so we should be mindful of our bodies and how we allow our thoughts to come to us. Thinking is distributed through the body, and there was reference here to the limbic system, which is primarily responsible for our emotional life; we know that emotion affects our immune system. This all relates to the embodied nature of thinking and emotion and the role of the right hemisphere, not only in emotion, but also in empathy and theory of mind” (quoted from a previous post, The Divided Brain. What does it mean to think?).

Embodied learning is more than ensuring that learning is not ‘overly focused on abstract cognition at the expense of emotion, movement and processes rooted in body-environment interactions’ (Rathkunde, 2009a). It is a recognition that the body is the necessary context for all human experience (McGilchrist, 2009, p.118) and cannot be separated from its relationship with the world. McGilchrist feels that the importance of this for our being in the world has been lost.

The left hemisphere’s assault on our embodied nature is not just an assault on our bodies, but on the embodied nature of the world around us. Matter is what is recalcitrant to the will. The idea that the ‘material’ world is not just a lump of resource, but reaches into every part of the realm of value, including the spiritual, that through our embodied nature we can commune with it, that there are responses and responsibilities that need to be respected, has largely been lost by the dominant culture (McGilchrist, 2009, p.440).

Returning to Rathkunde’s question, ‘How did we arrive at this alienating point of disembodiment in so many educational experiences?’, I think McGilchrist’s answer would be that we have allowed our education systems to be dominated by the left hemisphere’s approach to being, which has lost sight of the whole, and separated the mind from the experience of the body.


McGilchrist, I. (2009). The Master and His Emissary. The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World. Yale University Press

Merleau-Ponty, M. (2004). The world of perception. (O. Davis, Trans.). (T. Baldwin, Intro.). London and New York: Routledge. (Original work published 1948)

Montessori, M. (1973). From childhood to adolescence. Madras: Kalakshetra Publications.

Rathkunde, K. (2009a). Nature and Embodied Education, The Journal of Developmental Processes, 4(1), 70-80.

Rathkunde K. (2009b) Montessori and Embodied Education. In: Woods P.A., Woods G.J. (eds) Alternative Education for the 21st Century. Palgrave Macmillan, New York

Stolz, S. A. (2015). Embodied Learning. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 47(5), 474–487.

Williams, R., Gumtau, S. & Mackness, J. (2015).  Synesthesia: from cross-modal to modality-free learning and knowledge Leonardo Journal 

Source of image: https://www.simplypsychology.org/mindbodydebate.html

8 thoughts on “Embodied Learning: knowing with the whole body

  1. x28 March 28, 2019 / 12:33 pm

    “From Cross-Modal to Modality-Free” — and back? From the right hemisphere (multiple contexts) to the left hemisphere (no context) and back (applicable to multiple contexts) ?

  2. Benjamin David Steele March 29, 2019 / 12:41 pm

    Certainly, we are embodied beings. But it seems there is something more complex going on. We don’t only use the body to interact with the world, far from being limited to the voice.

    Just as important, we use our body as a way of communicating with ourselves. The body-mind is plural, not singular. Each of us is a community. Our social nature isn’t limited to relating to others but is at the core of our being.

    This obviously would have everything to do with learning.


  3. Lisa M. Lane (@LisaMLane) March 30, 2019 / 3:19 am

    Today I attended an astronomy lecture, and we were being taught about moon phases. We were given tablets to draw on, which helped a lot. Then we held up signs in answer to quiz questions, and when there was a variety of answers, the professor asked us to convince each other of our answers. As I looked about the room, I saw many people using their hands, arms, and body to convince each other. When they were working the problem on their own, they were still. But the body was wholly involved in explaining to others they were right.

  4. jennymackness April 1, 2019 / 7:12 am

    @x28 Thanks for your comment. I hadn’t made that particular connection before, but I can see what you mean. I’ll have to check McGilchrist’s book to see what he if he says anything about synesthesia.

  5. jennymackness April 1, 2019 / 7:21 am

    @ Benjamin – thanks for adding that thought and for the link to your post which adds a lot of useful and interesting information. In writing this post I deliberately tried to keep it simple. The literature on embodied learning is extensive and I wanted to avoid (for the purposes of this post) the work that has been done embodied cognition, situated cognition and so on, which would have required a much longer post. But I agree that the idea of communicating with ourselves is an important one which you have summed up beautifully. Thank you.

  6. jennymackness April 1, 2019 / 7:34 am

    @Lisa. Whilst writing this post I was also thinking of all the science teaching I have done and how all the sessions involved some sort of practical work, e.g. pond-dipping, model making etc. Rathkunde writes about disembodied learning. I see this an being on the extreme end of a spectrum towards embodied learning. As you imply, embodied learning doesn’t necessarily mean a lot of physical activity such as dance, physical education etc. In McGilchrist’s terms, the question is where the focus is and whether we, as teachers, are aware of the role of the body in learning and the fact that mind and body are inseparable.

  7. Benjamin David Steele April 1, 2019 / 12:59 pm

    @Jenny – I fully understand about wanting to keep some posts simple and focused. There almost always is a plethora of info out there and many tangents.

    About synaesthesia, David Abrams in The Spell of the Sensuous argues that synesthesia is the natural state of perception and cognition. At least certain kinds (e.g., spatial sequence of synesthetes) increase memory ability. And synaesthesia in general is associated with greater use of metaphors and more involvement in creative activities.

    In reading Lynne Kelly’s work on traditional mnemonic systems, I’ve wondered that synesthesia might have been more common in those societies. There way of learning is very much embodied and full-sensory. And the amount and detail of knowledge they memorize in many cases is the equivalent of an entire encyclopedia.

  8. jennymackness April 1, 2019 / 5:06 pm

    @Benjamin – thanks so much again for your comment. I will look up David Abrams and Lynne Kelly. You are a mine of information, which is very helpful. Thanks for taking the time to share it. Jenny

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