Paulo Freire’ questions for educators.
In my last post in which I shared the notes I made on my reading of Freire’s book Pedagogy of Hope. Reliving Pedagogy of the Oppressed, I mentioned that at the end of Chapter 4, on p.124, Freire listed the problems and questions that educators and education must always continue to seriously consider, discuss and address. Here is the quote in full.
“What seems to me to be unconscionable, however, today as yesterday, would be to conceive—or even worse, to practice—a popular education in which a constant, serious approach were not maintained, antecedently and concomitantly, to problems like: what content to teach, in behalf of what this content is to be taught, in behalf of whom, against what, and against whom.
- Who selects the content, and how is it taught?
- What is teaching?
- What is learning?
- What manner of relationship obtains between teaching and learning?
- What is popular knowledge, or knowledge gotten from living experience?
- Can we discard it as imprecise and confused?
- How may it be gotten beyond, transcended?
- What is a teacher?
- What is the role of a teacher?
- And what is a student?
- What is a student’s role?
- If being a teacher means being superior to the student in some way, does this mean that the teacher must be authoritarian?
- Is it possible to be democratic and dialogical without ceasing to be a teacher, which is different from being a student?
- Does dialogue mean irrelevant chitchat whose ideal atmosphere would be to “leave it as it is to see if it’ll work”?
- Can there be a serious attempt at the reading and writing of the word without a reading of the world?
- Does the inescapable criticism of a “banking” education mean the educator has nothing to teach and ought not to teach?
- Is a teacher who does not teach a self-contradiction?
- What is codification, and what is its role in the framework of a theory of knowledge?
- How is the “relation between practice and theory” to be understood—and especially, experienced—without the expression becoming trite, empty wordage?
- How is the “basistic,” voluntaristic temptation to be resisted—and how is the intellectualistic, verbalistic temptation to engage in sheer empty chatter to be overcome?
- How is one to “work on” the relationship between language and citizenship?”
It is almost 30 years since Freire wrote these words, and more than 50 years since Pedagogy of the Oppressed was first published. Despite this, Freire’s questions remain relevant and still have the power to challenge the current Brazilian government – see Why is the Brazilian Right Afraid of Paulo Freire?